6: Meditation on Brahma Viharas


Karuna, Metta, Upekka and Mudita are four kinds of Brahma Viharas or heavenly abodes (or states of mind). Essence of any one of them cannot be grasped without knowing the other three Brahma Viharas.

Karuna: Karuna is compassion for all people and beings who are less gifted than us and are suffering. It helps us reduce our pride and greed.

Mudita: Mudita is Sympathetic joy or feeling joy in prosperity and happiness of others. This emotion is developed for people or beings better gifted than us. It helps us reduce our jealously.

Upekka: Upekka is Equanimity. It is, treating all people and all beings equal and accept others as they are. It helps us reduce our indifference.

Metta: Metta is love for all beings. We usually love only those we are related and like. But Metta is loving all beings without any conditions whether they are rich or poor, good or bad, pleasant or unpleasant, ill & diseased or healthy, whether we know them or not, whether they are humans or animals or other beings. It helps us reduce our hate and anger.

Most of our emotions love, hate, anger, sympathy, etc are for our personal need/greed or towards those we know or love. But these Brahma Viharas are emotions that are noble and encompass all beings and are non-selfish.
These help us overcome greed, anger, hate, possessiveness and jealously.  But these emotions or states of mind are uncommon in most of us. Hence they need to be consciously developed.

Metta meditation is a common practice in Buddhist meditation. You can practice meditation on these Brahma Viharas. Here is the instructions you can follow to develop these Brahma Viharas:

Begin by sitting comfortably in traditional meditation posture – legs folded, back straight and head lightly balanced on the shoulder. Those uncomfortable can sit on chair with feets flat on the floor.

Close your eyes, take a deep breath.  Observe each part of your body slowly from head to toe.  As you observe each part relax the part relieving any tension on that part.

Then mentally repeat these statements to develop Brahma Viharas:

  1. May I have
    • good health (to do all my tasks, support my family, help society and care all beings),
    • wealth (and all resources including money to meet my needs, my family needs and provide for the needy),
    • love & respect (for myself, from all relatives, friends and all people I know),
    • success (in all things I do and intend to do for myself, for my family and at my profession) and
    • mindfulness (and awareness of all actions, speech & thoughts at all time whether I am alone or with my family or at my profession)
  2. May my family including my spouse, children, parents, in-laws & brothers & sisters have good health… wealth… love… success… and mindfulness.
  3. May my neighbors, friends, colleagues and all people I know have good health… wealth… love… success… and mindfulness.
  4. May all human being from my community, my country, my neighboring countries and all other countries on this earth have good health… wealth… love… success… and mindfulness.
  5. May all beings visible and invisible, on ground and water and air, on earth and everywhere in this universe have good health… wealth… love… success… and mindfulness.

Now slowly bring your body to normal state observing it from toe to head and open your eyes.

This is a combined meditation to develop all the Brahma Viharas. You can change the instructions to develop each Brahma Viharas separately.

This meditation is also in tune with recent science behind brain entrainment, neurolinguistic programming, etc.

Health, wealth, love, success and mindfulness in these instructions are again associated with our five fingers. They are also different aspects of our life we must care for.

  1. Health is associated with little finger which is weaker finger.
  2. Wealth is associated with ring finger having our diamond/gold ring.
  3. Love is associated with middle finger. If you have already read the rest of the book “Attaining Nirvana”, then you are now ready to assign this finger a better and respectful meaning it deserves.
  4. Success is associated with index finger which is also associated with destiny.
  5. Mindfulness is associated with thumb. It was associated with drink/intoxicatants in thumbs-up position and loss of awareness. It reminds us to remain always mindful.

The five groups of people in the meditation are also mapped to the fingers, so you do not lose direction in the meditation.

  1. Little finger denotes you.
  2. (Engagement)Ring finger denotes your relatives.
  3. Middle finger (assigning it better meaning again) denotes all the people you know and love.
  4. Index finger denoting all human beings.
  5. Thumb (we assigned it to mara observing all world systems and not letting the Cycle of Samsara to stop) denoting all other beings.
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5: The Practice Chart


Noble Eight Fold Path in Buddhism mapped on hand
Noble Eight Fold Path

The aim of this chart is to be aware of our deeds/karma as it is being done. In our daily life we are not aware whether what we have done is good or bad karma. With the help of this chart we can see all the karma that we have done after it has been done, like taking intoxicant, speaking lies, etc. After practicing it for some time, we will be at least aware of our actions  as they are being done. Awareness that we should change is important before we can change ourselves.

For practicing this figure is represented on the left palm, so that we can easily make markings on it with our right hand.(Left handed people can use this figure on right hand.).For attaining Nirvana, Buddha taught the Eight Fold Path, which is as under:

  • Sila: 1) Right Speech 2) Right Action 3) Right Livelihood
  • Samadhi: 4) Right Effort 5) Right Awareness 6) Right Meditation
  • Panna: 7) Right Thought 8) Right Understanding

With the help of the figure we can follow Sila and Samadhi aspects of attaining Nirvana. While Panna is left for the Second part of this Book, which will complete all aspects of attaining Nirvana.

The representations are as follows (Kindly re-read the details of each representation in previous chapters. Also see the figure as you read the rest of this chapter) :

The five fingers represent the five precepts or panchsheel (Ch.3).

  1. The little finger (weaker finger): Represents – and reminds us from abstaining from killing or harming living beings.
  2. The Ring finger (With costly ring on it): Represents – and reminds us from abstaining from stealing or taking what is not given.
  3. The (notorious) Middle finger: Represents – and reminds us from abstaining from sexual misconduct.
  4. The index finger (we use to ask someone to be quiet): Represents – and reminds us from abstaining from speaking lies, or speaking ill of others.
  5. The thumb (Representing drink in Thumbs Up position): Represents – and reminds us from abstaining from taking any intoxicants that affects the normal functioning of our mind.

Three other precepts not represented are followed by monks (We should try these in addition to above precepts at least once in a week or fasting days.)

  1. Abstaining from listening to music and other entertainment which affects our presence of mind.
  2. Abstaining from taking high and cushioned seat which makes us lethargic.
  3. Eating once a day but not after sunset, to maintain control on our greed.

The three  phalanges of each finger represent Morality (Sila) in action, speech and thought. As karma or intentional actions (discussed in next Part of this Book) are performed in thought, speech and action, the five precepts are divided and represented into three by the phalanges. This is so that we do not neglect or give less importance to karma performed in either thought, speech or action. Also as it is very difficult to change our source of livelihood if it has already been chosen or we had no choice, it becomes important that we follow the precepts in thought, speech and action so we have control of our mind and make our livelihood better. Those who have yet to choose their livelihood should choose it wisely as it affects our whole life, our minds and our practice.

The outer part of the palm connected to the fingers is used to mark our awareness or mindfulness in daily life. The marks are made from outside to inside. The markings are done like hour mark on a clock. For each hour that we are aware we make a mark indicating we were aware at that time of the day.  Also as we cannot properly represent a 24hr clock, we represent the marks with arrows pointing outwards as day for that hour and the same arrow pointing inwards as night and the mark having arrows at both ends as being aware for that hour both during day and night.

The circle in the center of palm shown in the figure is used to mark our meditation practice. A smaller circle is drawn for small period of meditation and large circle for longer period of meditation. Here again we draw another concentric circle for meditation done more than once during a day.

The long and bold arrows shown pointing from each finger towards center where we mark meditation is used to indicate the five hindrances that affect our meditation practice. These are

  1. Sloth & Torpor (Laziness): This line is drawn from the little finger – the weaker finger, which does very little work than the other fingers.
  2. Restlessness & Worry : This line is drawn from the ring finger, the diamond/golden ring in your finger giving you the cause for worry and restlessness.
  3. Sensual pleasure: This line is drawn from the middle finger, this is again the notorious middle finger associated with sensual pleasure.
  4. Ill-will: This line is drawn from the index finger, pointing to others, thinking evil of others.
  5. Skeptical doubt: This line is drawn from the thumb. The thumb in up direction says ‘go ahead’ and the same in down direction says ‘it sucks’.

4: Meditation


You have to let it all go, Neo, fear, doubt, and disbelief. Free your mind.

–Morpheus

We have dedicated a separate chapter to meditation techniques recommended by the Buddha. Although there are many other meditation techniques that can get you concentrated quickly or get you into a higher meditative states, but can lead you to more attachment with self and lead you astray from the path of attaining Nirvana. Readers are recommended to read material from other sources for correct method of meditation.
There are basically two types of meditation – Samatha(Concentration) and Vipassana (Insight).
Vipassana or Insight meditation aims towards practically observing the realities of impermenence, anatta and dukkha internally and externally, to see things as they really are, and thus reducing our attachment and leading toward attaining Nirvana. Vipassana is best practised under the guidance of an experienced teacher and hence will not be covered in this book. You can enrol for a course on Vipassana at your nearest Vipassana Centre.
Samatha or Concentration meditation aims to calm the mind, reduce mental chatter and gain higher meditative states (known as Jhana). There are more than 40 types of Samatha (Concentration) meditation each with different goals and suited to different types of people. They are all covered in Satipatthana Sutta. Satipatthana Sutta is also known as the Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness.

1.  Mindfulness of body: Easy to break bad habits and also helps in improving awareness in daily life. We are aware of whether our hands are relaxed, the position of our head, whether we are leaning forward or backward, whether we are very relaxed or strained.

2.  Mindfulness of breathing: (Covered in Mindfulness of body but mentioned separately due to its simplicity and benefits) Very simple steps and easy to learn and practice. We are mindful of our breath as it comes in and also as it goes out.

3.  Mindfulness of sensations: We now when a sensation has arisen which helps in controlling our thoughts that arise as an effect of sensation. Whether the sensation is good or bad or neither good nor bad, without giving any reaction and just observing it with calm mind.

4.  Mindfulness of thought: We are aware when a thought has arisen and when it has ceased and thus controlling it on time and also leading to controlling our actions based on these thoughts.

5.  Mindfulness of thought objects: We now when a thought has arisen, how it continues and how it then ceases. How one thought gives rise to another thought. How  the arisen thought leads us to actions.

6.  Loving Kindness (Metta) Meditation: This meditation is done to reduce our anger and develop loving kindness towards all beings. Thus this meditation reduces hatred and generates love in us. Anger and hatred is one of the three root cause of suffering.

Five hindrances in meditation

1.  Skeptical doubt

2.  Ill-will

3.  Sensual Pleasures

4.  Restlessness and Worry

5.  Sloth and Torpor (Laziness)

3: Noble Eight Fold Path


You have been down there, Neo. You know that road. You know exactly where it ends. And I know that’s not where you want to be…

–Trinity

Noble Eight Fold Path

Sila (Morality)

1.  Right Action

2.  Right Speech

3.  Right Livelihood

Samadhi (Concentration)

1.  Right Effort

2.  Right Awareness

3.  Right Meditation

Panna (Wisdom)

1.  Right Understanding

2.  Right Thought

1.  Right speech : what is right speech? Right speech is not speaking lies; right speech is avoiding idle talk or gossip; right speech is not slandering; right speech is avoiding harsh speech; thus anything spoken that is morally correct and not offending anyone is right speech.

2.  Right action : what are right actions? They are the panchshila or five precepts: avoid harming living beings; avoiding taking what is not given or avoid stealing; avoiding sexual misconduct; avoiding false speech; avoiding intoxicants.

3.  Right livelihood: earnings from noble source only i.e. Not earning through killing, stealing or cheating, or from any other immoral source. Right livelihood is necessary as it affects our daily life and can hinder our efforts at right speech and action. Also it is very difficult for salespeople to sell without some lies and some businesses cannot survive if shortcomings of their product or services are made public. Choose your livelihood wisely.

4.  Right effort: putting right amount of effort to achieve nirvana. Very little effort will take us nowhere and too much effort can lead to disappointment and lack of faith in achieving nirvana.

  • Also right effort is avoiding bad karma.
  • Right effort is preventing further bad karma from arising.
  • Right effort is developing good karma.
  • Right effort is maintaining good karma that has arisen.

5.  Right awareness: what is right awareness? What are we not aware of? Right awareness is being always aware of what we are doing. Basically it is avoiding day dreaming. But it is more than that. Usually while walking, sitting, driving and all the time we are awake, we are not aware what we are doing, how we are walking, sitting, speaking, etc.

But why is awareness so necessary? It is mostly due to not being aware that we do evil karma. Also it is because of no awareness that we do karma and become aware only after we have done it. Awareness is also necessary to follow the 8-fold path and hence also necessary to achieve nirvana.

  1. Right meditation or concentration: It is very difficult to meditate. Is meditation really necessary to achieve nirvana? We do not have time to meditate for long period. We also cannot meditate for long period as our daily life doesn’t give us enough time to practice such meditation.

Actually awareness is a type of meditation. It can and should be enough to replace the need for meditation. But awareness cannot give us finer control of our mind. Only meditation gives us higher level of awareness of working of our mind also known as meditative states or jhanas.  Meditation makes us aware of what, when and how our sensations transform into thought and thought into action. Thus meditation makes us aware of our karma which is the base for nirvana.

Most people doubt the effectiveness of meditation as the results are not as dramatic as they expect. Only long periods of meditation has any accountable effect. Then is it that laymen cannot really be benefited with little meditation every day?   Actually everyone can be benefited from meditation, only that the benefits of meditation can be seen only through awareness in regular life. As I have already said awareness is a type of meditation and not just that, without awareness meditation is of very little use. This is the reason why people cannot see the effect of meditation.

But like meditation, awareness is also difficult, but can be mastered with determination and discipline.

  1. Right understanding: right understanding is

i.Four noble truth – that there is dukkha, that desire is the root cause of suffering, that there is cessation of suffering and suffering can be conquered by following the 8-fold path.

ii. Dependent origination

iii. Karma

  1. Right thought: I have intentionally interpreted this for our thoughts as a “shila” or morality to complete the chart and also to emphasize the importance of our thoughts in our karma. But it is now time to explain the actual meaning of right thought.

Right thought is also interpreted as right view and also right vision. Right view is:

  • There is rebirth
  • That our karma affects our future life.
  • That nirvana can be achieved by anyone who follows the path.
  • That we are ourselves responsible for our future and it does not depend on an external being.
  • That attaching to everything impermanent causes dukkha.
  • That there is dukkha and we must realize dukkha as it is.
  • That there is no permanent soul and there is no substance in identity.

2: Basics & Four Noble Truth


Do not try and bend the spoon. That’s impossible. Instead only try to realize the truth.

–Spoon Boy

This chapter will give you the basic information you need to know to achieve Nirvana or to lead a life free from suffering. This chapter is also the base for the rest of the book. Actually Four Noble Truths in the title of this chapter is the base of teachings of the Buddha.

The  Four Noble Truths

Four Noble Truths is the basic teaching of Buddhism. Also this basic teaching is enough for a person to attain Nirvana. Buddha found the path to eradication of suffering. Following the path one can attain Nirvana and eradicate his sufferings. So we must first know what is suffering (This is the first noble truth). Then we must know the cause of suffering (the second noble truth) so that it can be eradicated. When we know the cause of suffering, how the suffering comes to an end (the third noble truth). When we know how the suffering comes to an end, we need to know what we need to do to eradicate our sufferings (the forth noble truth).

1.  Dukkha (Suffering): Dukkha or Suffering is the First of the Noble Truth. Also Buddha’s teachings revolve around suffering and accepting it as reality, as a truth, and eradicating it with knowledge and understanding. So what exactly is suffering? Suffering is, not getting what one wants. Suffering is, getting rid of what one doesn’t want. Suffering is, fear of not being with our loved ones. Suffering is illness, old age and death.

As suffering forms the base of the Four Noble Truth and Buddhism, Buddhism is often thought as a pessimistic religion. We can compare suffering as disease. Just like knowing the disease is not pessimistic but realistic as it will help us diagnose the disease right and help us get cured soon. Similarly knowing that suffering exists and knowing its nature we will be better able to eradicate our suffering.

2.  Cause of Dukkha (Suffering): Desire/attachment is the root cause of suffering. Desire to get wealth, get power, get love, get peace, get rid of disease and pain, get rid of poverty, get everything that we want and get rid of everything that we do not want. This desire causes in our mind Ignorance, lust (Greed) and anger – the base defilements of our minds that are cause of our suffering.

3.  Cessation of Dukkha (Suffering): With the cessation of desire, the cause of suffering, the suffering also comes to an end. This is the Third Noble truth.

4.  Path to Cessation of Suffering: By following the Noble Eight Fold path Dukkha comes to an end. The Eight Fold Path is grouped into three – Sila (Morality), Samadhi (Concentration), Panna (Wisdom).

Noble Eight Fold Path

Sila (Morality)

1.  Right Action

2.  Right Speech

3.  Right Livelihood

Samadhi (Concentration)

4.  Right Effort

5.  Right Awareness

6.  Right Meditation

Panna (Wisdom)

7.  Right View

8.  Right Resolve

Universal Characteristics of everything conditional:

Three universal truth: We have seen what is four noble truth. While the four noble truth gives us not just hope for the end of our sufferings, but also shows the path which can be followed to end the sufferings, the 3-universal truths is the only thing, the knowledge of which leads to end of suffering and to Nirvana. To really grasp the universal truths we need to understand and follow the four noble truths. So what are the three universal truths?

  • Anicca (impermanence): All things in this world is impermanent.
  • Anatta (No soul or substantialness): There is no permanent soul or substantialness in anything material or immaterial.
  • Dukkha (Suffering): There is dukkha in attaching to everything that is conditioned by mind.

Anicca: Anicca in english means impermanence. This is the first universal truth. Everything that has a beginning comes to an end. In this context everything is impermanent. Everyone knows that. Really? Do we really recognize that our friends, neighbors, relatives, family and we ourselves are impermanent? Do we recognize that our pen, books, dress, car, house, etc are impermanent when we interact with them? When we all know that our earth, moon, sun including our solar system are impermanent and have a finite life span, why do we all fight for petty impermanent things on earth? Wait! There’ more. Do you know that your thoughts, feelings, sensations, emotions, are impermanent too!

Anatta: Anatta means without self or without soul. It is a popular misconception that there exists a permanent soul within us that remains with us from our birth till death, and for those who believe, after death gets transferred to be reborn as another life. Instead, what we call soul is a continuous link of our ever changing memories or consciousness that is attached to our ever changing physical body. Let us experience it. Are you the same person you were 10yrs ago either physically or mentally? Are you the same person you were 5 yrs ago? Are you the same person you were last week? Are you the same person you were yesterday? Are you the same person you were 10 minutes before? The answer is obvious. No. Why? Because you have changed physically during this time. There has been a lot of biological changes inside you and the changes are continuous. This apart your likes and dislikes, your values, your thoughts, your personality, your knowledge, everything has changed. So how can we call ourselves the same person we were since childhood. How can we have a permanent soul, if it keeps changing so much? The point is, there exists no permanent soul, there is no self, there is no I, no me, no us, no them. It is just a name or identity we use for communication and identification purpose. It’s the duality of name and form that gives us the impression of permanent soul or self. We have been carrying this false concept all our life. What we call self or I is physical and mental link at a point in time. This has to be realized. This is Anatta.

Dukkha: Dukkha is one of the three universal truths. It is common to all living beings and hence Buddha’s teachings are applicable to all living beings of all world systems(discussed later) alike. We have already seen what is dukkha or suffering. We have seen dukkha as suffering, as not getting what one wants, getting rid of what one doesn’t want, not being with our loved ones, illness, old age and death.

Now we see Dukkha as unsatisfactoriness. Dukkha or  suffering or unsatisfactoriness which arises due our wrong understanding of Anicca and Anatta and Dukkha itself. We see impermanent as permanent and get attached to it, which causes Dukkha. We see Anatta or not self as Self and attach to things as my or mine or ours or theirs, this causes suffering. We do not realize Dukkha or suffering or unsatisfactoriness as Dukkha or suffering or unsatisfactoriness, which also causes Dukkha.

If each of our thought, speech and action is based on the realization of these three universal truth then there will be no further desire, no further defilements, thus leading us to our goal of Nirvana.

Five Precepts (Panchshila):

Morality is an important base for attaining Nirvana as mentioned above in Noble Eight Fold Path. These five precepts or panchsila provides an important and simple guideline for laymen about morality.

1.  Abstaining from harming or killing living beings.

2.  Abstaining from stealing or taking what is not given.

3.  Abstaining from sexual misconduct.

4.  Abstaining false speech, harsh speech, slandering and vain talk.

5.  Abstaining from taking intoxicants. (Intoxicant is anything that affects the normal functioning of mind).

There are three additional precepts followed by monks and in general not followed by laymen:

6.  Abstaining from listening to music and other entertainment which affects our presence of mind.

7.  Abstaining from taking high and cushioned seat which makes us lethargic.

8.  Eating once a day but not after sunset, to maintain control on our greed.

1: What is Nirvana?


It’s the question that drives us, Neo. It’s the question that brought you here. You know the question just as I did.

–Trinity

Nirvana in simple words is freedom from suffering of life. But Nirvana cannot be understood without attaining it, just like a person who has not tasted a strawberry can not be explained how it really tastes. But we can compare it with other things in world that we know to understand what it must be like. Thus by the end of this book you will gain good understanding of what Nirvana is. For the time being Nirvana is –

For Layman:

Nirvana is the state of being perfect, being free from greed, anger and ignorance and all defilements of our mind. The person who has attained Nirvana does no action, speech or thought that will harm others or will cause any bad reaction in future in anyway. He has no desires that will cause greed, jealousy and anger to be arisen. Thus he is free from suffering, free from fear, worry and tension. Thus, he does not suffer any worldly pain.

For Philosopher:

It means freedom from cycle of birth and death. There will be no further birth after attaining Nirvana and no further suffering. The person may still have to go through illness, old age and death, which is the consequence of birth in present life. There is no suffering of mind, but only of body as a result of wear and tear of body and limited lifespan of physical body.

For Buddhist:

On attaining nirvana, a person is free from the three root cause of suffering and understands the true nature of all things. Thus there is no further attachment, no further desires that will lead him to further sufferings. Thus, the person attaining Nirvana has perfected himself. Nirvana also means freedom from the cycle of Samsara or cycle of birth & death & suffering. On death, the body is disintegrated into its component parts that of earth, water, fire and air. The mind or consciousness no longer exists as there is no further desires and karma left to form into another life for rebirth.

Why do we need to attain Nirvana? Nirvana means freedom from suffering as a human being/living being. But, why do we suffer? We suffer due to our deeds also called karma or action which have bad reaction/effects. So if we are able to reduce our bad deeds/karma/action we will suffer less to that extant. Our actions in turn are the result of our mental defilements. If we are able to completely remove our defilements we will stop suffering altogether. This is basically the aim of Nirvana. But Nirvana is much more than just eradicating our defilements, it is eradicating defilements through wisdom, through knowledge and understanding.

How do we attain Nirvana? To attain Nirvana we need to follow the Noble Eight Fold path. In this book simple and easy to follow steps cover the Eight Fold path which can be followed by anyone. Though the steps are simple, they need to be followed by each person for himself, which in turns needs willingness and persistence.

Buddha after attaining Nirvana or Enlightenment (found the path to eradicate sufferings), taught the path to his disciples and all people so that they can too, like him eradicate their suffering and attain Nirvana. Many people at his time and after him attained Nirvana following the path or teachings.

  • Buddha’s teachings or the path is referred as the Dhamma.
  • Those who have benefited from practicing Buddha’s teachings are referred as the Sangha.
  • All those who attained Nirvana after Buddha following his teachings are referred as Arahats.
  • Those who avoid attaining Nirvana even though they can attain it, so that all people can benefit from their teachings and knowledge are referred as Bodhisattva.